Hobart

Robert C. Clarke

Rob has devoted his entire professional career and much of his personal life to studying cannabis agriculture and human-cannabis relationships. 

He is the author of “The Botany and Ecology of Cannabis” (1977) “Marijuana Botany” (1981), and co-author of “Hemp Diseases and Pests” (2000) and “Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany” (2013)

He has written numerous peer-reviewed articles, as well as participating in international conferences, and his work is widely known and recognised by a popular audience as well as his academic peers. 

Rob worked for HortaPharm BV in the Netherlands from 1993 through 2003 as a plant breeder, cultivation consultant and liaison to the academic community. HortaPharm’s primary goal was the development of single cannabinoid cannabis varieties (THC, CBD, THCV, etc.) for use in medicines such as those produced by GW Pharmaceuticals in the United Kingdom amongst others. 

In 2000-2003, Rob set up licensed research and production glasshouses in the United Kingdom for GW Pharmaceuticals and also Merck Generics. 

Other interests include breeding industrial hemp varieties suited for semi-tropical and equatorial conditions. During this time Rob also attended many international congresses presenting papers based on his field research.

Spanning the past three decades Rob traveled extensively throughout Eurasia documenting traditional cannabis production and use. Field research focused primarily on the minority ethnic groups living in the highlands of Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces of China as well as the neighboring regions of Laos, Thailand, Burma and Vietnam. Additional fieldwork was carried out in Eastern Europe, India, Japan, Korea and Nepal. During recent years field research and collecting have spread to the Balkan, Caucasus and Carpathian regions as well as Turkey where he is presently documenting traditional hemp culture and establishing a hemp textile business.

In 2016, Rob along with business partner Mojave Richmond, established BioAgronomics Group an international cannabis industry consultancy based in California. 

Rob is presently collaborating with Phylos Bioscience using genomic analysis to decipher the early evolution and domestication history of genus Cannabis and is working to preserve Cannabis landraces and heirloom cultivars.

Academic affiliations:

  • Society for Economic Botany – Life Member
  • International Hemp Association – Projects Manager
  • Textile Society of America – Member
  • Phylos Bioscience – Scientific Advisory Board

List of Publications:

Books

1. Clarke, Robert Connell 1977 The Botany and Ecology of Cannabis, Ben Lomond, CA, Pods Press: 76 pgs. [Out of print]

2. Clarke, Robert Connell 1981 Marijuana Botany, Berkeley, CA, And/Or Press: 197 pgs.

3. Clarke, Robert Connell 1997 Hanf, AT Verlag, Aarau, Switzerland: 239 pgs. [German Edition]

4. Clarke, Robert Connell 2004 La Botanique du Cannabis, Éditions du Lézard, Paris, France: 249 pgs. [French Edition]

5. Clarke, Robert Connell 1998a (2010) Hashish! Los Angeles, CA, Red Eye Press: 387 pgs. [Out of print]

6. Clarke, Robert Connell 2000 Haschisch, AT Verlag, Aarau, Switzerland: 328 pgs. [German Edition]

7. McPartland, J. M., Robert C. Clarke and David P. Watson 2000 Hemp Diseases and Pests: Management and Biological Control: An Advanced Treatise CABI Publishing, Wallingford, United Kingdom:290 pages.

8. Clarke, Robert C. and Mark D. Merlin 2013 Cannabis: Evolution and ethnobotany University of California Press, Berkeley CA:452 pages.

Chapters in edited volumes 

1. Clarke, Robert C. 1998b Botany of the genus Cannabis (in) Ranalli, Paolo (Ed.) Advances in Hemp Research Haworth Press, Binghamton, NY:1-20.

2. Clarke, Robert C. 2000 Hempseed curd manufacture by the Hmong/Miao of Yunnan province, China (in) Rose, Richard and Brigitte Mars (Eds.) The Hempnut Health and Cookbook HempNut Inc., Santa Rosa, CA:93-95.

3. Clarke, Robert Connell 2001 Sinsemilla heritage: What’s in a name? (in) King, Jason The Cannabible Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California:1-24.

4. Clarke, Robert Connell 2007 (2009) Généalogie du Cannabis Moderne: Histoire des nouvelles variétiés (in) Michka (Ed.) Cannabis Médical du Chanvre Indien au THC de Synthèse Mama Editions, Paris:137-179. French Reprint

5. Clarke, Robert C. and David W. Pate 1997 Economic and environmental potential of Cannabis (in) Mathre, Mary Lynn (Ed.) Cannabis in Medical Practice McFarland & Co, Jefferson, North Carolina:192-211.

6. Clarke, Robert C. and David P. Watson 2001 Die Botanik natürlicher Cannabismedikamente (in) Grotenhermen, Franjo (Ed.) Cannabis und Cannabinoide: Pharmakologie, Toxicology und therapeutisces Potential Verlag Hans Huber, Bern, Switzerland:21-32.

7. Clarke, Robert C. and David P. Watson 2002 Botany of Natural Cannabis Medicines (in) Grotenhermen, Franjo and Ethan Russo (Eds.) Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential Haworth Press, New York:3-13. English Edition

8. Clarke, Robert C. and David P. Watson 2007 Cannabis and natural Cannabis medicines (in) ElSohly, Mahmoud A. (Ed.) Marijuana and the Cannabinoids Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey:1-15.

9. Clarke, Robert C. and Mark D. Merlin 2016 Cannabis domestication, breeding history, present-day genetic diversity and future prospects. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences [in press]

10. Merlin, Mark D. and Robert C. Clarke 2017 Cannabis in Ancient Central Eurasian Burials (in) Fitzpatrick, Scott M. (Ed.) Ancient Psychoactive Substances University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida:20-42. 

Peer reviewed articles

1. Clarke, Robert C. 1995a Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation in the Tai’an District of Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China Journal of the International Hemp Association 2(2):57, 60-65.

2. Clarke, Robert C. 1995b Scythian Cannabis verification project Journal of the International Hemp Association 2(2):104.

3. Clarke, Robert C. 1998c Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – Five year report Journal of the International Hemp Association 5(2):75-79.

4. Clarke, Robert C. 1999a Hemp fiber identification project Journal of the International Hemp Association 6(1):18-19.

5. Clarke, Robert C. 1999b Confusion over Cannabis in Yunnan Journal of the International Hemp Association 6(2):77-80.

6. Clarke, Robert C. 2002 Field Interview Schedule and Questionnaire for investigating Cannabis use Journal of Industrial Hemp 7(1):83-88.

7. Clarke, Robert C. 2003a Collections Corner: Industrial hemp collectibles from international collections Journal of Industrial Hemp 8(2):85-86.

8. Clarke, Robert C. 2003b Naxi Dongba funerary scrolls Journal of Industrial Hemp 8(2):87-102.

9. Clarke, Robert C. 2005 Hmong hemp skirts Journal of Industrial Hemp 10(1):61-85.

10. Clarke, Robert C. 2006a Hemp (Cannabis) cultivation and use in the Republic of Korea Journal of Industrial Hemp 11(1):51-86.

11. Clarke, Robert C. 2006b Hemp museum tour of Nagano Prefecture, Japan Journal of Industrial Hemp 11(1):95-101.

12. Clarke, Robert C. 2006c Book review: Cannabis Britannica: Empire, trade and prohibition by James H. Mills (2003) Journal of Industrial Hemp 11(1):103-107.

13. Clarke, Robert C. 2006d Searching for hempen treasures—Field identification of hemp fiber in markets, museums and private collections Journal of Industrial Hemp 11(2):73-90.

14. Clarke, Robert C. 2007a Traditional Cannabis cultivation in Darchula district, Nepal—Seed, resin and textiles Journal of Industrial Hemp 12(2):19-42.

15. Clarke, Robert C. 2007b Traditional Nepali hemp textiles Journal of Industrial Hemp 12(2):97-113.

16. Clarke, Robert C. 2008a Four generations of Sani hemp satchels Journal of Industrial Hemp 13(1):58-72.

17. Clarke, Robert C. 2008b In Memoriam: Michael John Sutherland  Journal of Industrial Hemp 13(1):96-99.

18. Clarke, Robert C. 2010a Traditional fiber hemp (Cannabis) production, processing, yarn making, and weaving strategies – Functional constraints and regional responses. Part 1 Journal of Natural Fibers 14(2):118-153.

19. Clarke, Robert C. 2010b Traditional fiber hemp (Cannabis) production, processing, yarn making, and weaving strategies – Functional constraints and regional responses. Part 2 Journal of Natural Fibers 14(3):229-250.

20. Clarke, Robert C. and Wenfeng Gu 1998 Survey of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) use by the Hmong (Miao) of the China/Vietnam border region Journal of the International Hemp Association 5(1):1, 4-9.

21. Doubovskaja, Alexandra, Andrea Sonnino, Ugo De Corato, Lyudmila Rumyantseva and Robert C. Clarke 1996 Report of Italian VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm Preservation Project Journal of the International Hemp Association 3(1):7-9.

22. Fleming, Michael P. and Robert C. Clarke 1998 Physical evidence for the antiquity of Cannabis sativa L. Journal of the International Hemp Association 5(2):80-93.

23. Jiang, Hongen, Long Wang, Mark D. Merlin, Robert C. Clarke, Yan Pan, Yong Zhang, Guoxiang

24. Xiao and Xiaolian Ding 2016 Ancient Cannabis Burial Shroud in a Central Eurasian Cemetery. Economic Botany 20(10):1-9. 

25. Kutuzova, Sofia and Robert C. Clarke 1997 VIR/IHA Cannabis Germplasm Preservation Project – 1997 Journal of the International Hemp Association 4(2):100.

26. Kutuzova, Sofia N., Sergey V. Grigoryev, Lyudmila Rumyantseva, Janos Berenji and Robert C. Clarke 1998 Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – 1997 Journal of the International Hemp Association 5(1):28-31.

27. Kutuzova, Sofia, Lyudmila Rumyantseva and Robert C. Clarke 1996 Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – 1995 Journal of the International Hemp Association 3(1):10-12.

28. Kutuzova, Sofia, Lyudmila Rumyantseva, Sergey Grigoryev and Robert C. Clarke 1997 Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – 1996 Journal of the International Hemp Association 4(1):17-21.

29. Lemeshev, Nicolai, Lyudmila Rumyantseva and Robert C. Clarke 1994 Maintenance of Cannabis germplasm in the Vavilov Research Institute Gene Bank – 1993 Journal of the International Hemp Association 1(1):1, 3-5.

30. Lu, Xiaozhai and Robert C. Clarke 1995 The cultivation and use of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in ancient China Journal of the International Hemp Association 2(1):26-30.

31. Shao, Hong and Robert C. Clarke 1996 Taxonomic studies of Cannabis in China Journal of the International Hemp Association 3(2):55-60.

32. Watson, D. P. and Clarke, R. C. 1997. The genetic future of hemp Bioresource Hemp Symposium Proceedings (Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Feb. 27–March 2, 1997) Nova Institute, Hürth, Germany:122-127.